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Pragmatism Wiki

Wikipedia: Pragmatism. (letzter Abruf Mai ) Python Programming Language. Long: Who's a Pragmatist: Distinguishing Epistemic Pragmatism and Contextualism. In: The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. 16/1, , S. 39– Joseph. sister projects: Wikipedia article, Commons gallery, Commons category, quotes, Wikidata item. Pioneering American psychologist and.


Code Generation Network: Code Generation Information for the Pragmatic Wikipedia: Pragmatism. (letzter Abruf Mai​. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In Understanding and Explanation: A Transcendental-Pragmatic Perspective, Apel reformulated the difference between. Englisch: [1, 2] pragmatism · Esperanto: [1] pragmatismo · Französisch: [1]; Mazedonisch: [1, 2] Wikipedia-Artikel „Pragmatismus“: [1] Digitales Wörterbuch der.

Pragmatism Wiki From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Video

Community/RBEs: Utopian or Pragmatic?

Long: Who's a Pragmatist: Distinguishing Epistemic Pragmatism and Contextualism. In: The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. 16/1, , S. 39– Joseph. „ugly enough to be safe from kidnappers“, What Pragmaticism is, CP ; ↑ I proposed that the word „pragmatism“ should hereafter be used somewhat. pragmatism. from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article treats pragmatism as a philosophical current. For William James' lecture series. sister projects: Wikipedia article, Commons gallery, Commons category, quotes, Wikidata item. Pioneering American psychologist and.
Pragmatism Wiki

To paraphrase Putnam:. Neopragmatism is distinguished from classical pragmatism the pragmatism of James, Dewey, Pierce, and Mead primarily due to the influence of the linguistic turn in philosophy that occurred in the early and mid-twentieth century.

The linguistic turn in philosophy reduced talk of mind, ideas, and the world to language and the world. Philosophers stopped talking about the ideas or concepts one may have present in one's mind and started talking about the "mental language" and terms used to employ these concepts.

In the early twentieth century philosophers of language e. Ayer, Bertrand Russell, G. Moore thought that analyzing language would bring about the arrival of meaning, objectivity, and ultimately, truth concerning external reality.

In this tradition, it was thought that truth was obtained when linguistic terms stood in a proper correspondence relation to non-linguistic objects this can be called " representationalism ".

The thought was that in order for a statement or proposition to be true it must give facts which correspond to what is actually present in reality.

This is called the correspondence theory of truth and is to be distinguished from a neo-pragmatic conception of truth.

There were many philosophical inquiries during the mid-twentieth century which began to undermine the legitimacy of the methodology of the early Anglo-analytic philosophers of language.

Quine in Word and Object , [6] originally published in , attacked the notion of our concepts having any strong correspondence to reality.

Quine argued for ontological relativity which attacked the idea that language could ever describe or paint a purely non-subjective picture of reality.

More specifically, ontological relativity is the thesis that the things we believe to exist in the world are wholly dependent on our subjective, "mental languages".

A 'mental language' is simply the way words which denote concepts in our minds are mapped to objects in the world. The above argument is reminiscent of the theme in neopragmatism against the picture theory of language , the idea that the goal of inquiry is to represent reality correctly with one's language.

A second critically influential philosopher to the neo-pragmatist is Thomas Kuhn who argued that our languages for representing reality, or what he called "paradigms", are only as good as they produce possible future experiments and observations.

Kuhn, being a philosopher of science, argued in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions [7] that "scientific progress" was a kind of a misnomer; for Kuhn, we make progress in science whenever we throw off old scientific paradigms with their associated concepts and methods in favor of new paradigms which offer novel experiments to be done and new scientific ontologies.

For Kuhn 'electrons' exist just so much as they are useful in providing us with novel experiments which will allow us to uncover more about the new paradigm we have adopted.

As a result it was lost from feminine discourse. The very features of pragmatism that led to its decline are the characteristics that feminists now consider its greatest strength.

These feminist philosophers point to Jane Addams as a founder of classical pragmatism. In addition, the ideas of Dewey, Mead and James are consistent with many feminist tenets.

Although many later pragmatists such as W. Quine were actually analytic philosophers, the most vehement criticisms of classical pragmatism came from within the analytic school.

Bertrand Russell was especially known for his vituperative attacks on what he considered little more than epistemological relativism and short-sighted practicalism.

Realists in general often could not fathom how pragmatists could seriously call themselves empirical or realist thinkers and thought pragmatist epistemology was only a disguised manifestation of idealism.

Hildebrand Louis Menand argues [16] that during the Cold War , the intellectual life of the United States became dominated by ideologies.

Since pragmatism seeks "to avoid the violence inherent in abstraction," it was not very popular at the time.

Neopragmatism as represented by Richard Rorty has been criticized as relativistic both by neoclassical pragmatists such as Susan Haack Haack and by many analytic philosophers Dennett Rorty's early analytical work, however, differs notably from his later work which some, including Rorty himself, consider to be closer to literary criticism than to philosophy - most criticism is aimed at this latter phase of Rorty's thought.

Neoclassical pragmatists stay closer to the project of the classical pragmatists than neopragmatists do.

IEP Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy SEP Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Papers and online encyclopedias are part of the bibliography. Other sources may include interviews, reviews and websites.

Important introductory primary texts Note that this is an introductory list: some important works are left out and some less monumental works that are excellent introductions are included.

Journals There are several peer-reviewed journals dedicated to pragmatism, for example. Template:Template group. This wiki. This wiki All wikis.

Sign In Don't have an account? Please help to improve this page yourself if you can.. Pragmatism as a philosophy of the social sciences.

European Journal of Social Theory , 7 3 , Pragmatism and educational research. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. A pragmatist approach to the problem of knowledge in health psychology Journal of Health Psychology , 14 6 , Applied Research Projects.

Texas State University Paper Texas State University. Paper Faculty Publications-Political Science.

Feminist interpretations of John Dewey. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press; Seigfried, C. Pragmatism and feminism: Reweaving the social fabric.

Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Seigfried, C. Where are all the pragmatists feminists? Hypatia, 6, A holistically Deweyan feminism.

Metaphilosophy, 32, Duran, J. The intersection of pragmatism and feminism. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 35, Jane Addams social thought as a model for a pragmatist-feminist communitarianism.

Hypatia, 19, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Morris Dickstein, Duke University Press, Categories :.

Cancel Save. Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted. Fan Feed 0 Types of gestures. Universal Conquest Wiki.

FandomShop DC Trivia GalaxyQuest. Classical pragmatists [ edit edit source ] Charles Sanders Peirce : was the founder of American pragmatism later called by Peirce pragmaticism.

He wrote on a wide range of topics, from mathematical logic and semiotics to psychology. William James : influential psychologist and theorist of religion , as well as philosopher.

First to be widely associated with the term "pragmatism" due to Peirce's lifelong unpopularity. John Dewey : prominent philosopher of education , referred to his brand of pragmatism as instrumentalism.

Schiller : one of the most important pragmatists of his time, Schiller is largely forgotten today. Important protopragmatists or related thinkers George Herbert Mead : philosopher and sociological social psychologist.

Ralph Waldo Emerson : the American protopragmatist. Josiah Royce : colleague of James who employed pragmatism in an idealist metaphysical framework, he was particularly interested in the philosophy of religion and community; his work is often associated with neo-Hegelianism.

George Santayana : often not considered to be a canonical pragmatist, he applied pragmatist methodologies to naturalism philosophy , exemplified in his early masterwork, The Life of Reason.

Fringe figures Giovanni Papini : Italian essayist, mostly known because James occasionally mentioned him. Giovanni Vailati : Italian analytic and pragmatist philosopher.

Hu Shi : Chinese intellectual and reformer, student and translator of Dewey's and advocate of pragmatism in China. Reinhold Niebuhr : American Philosopher and Theologian, inserted Pragmatism into his theory of Christian Realism.

Neoclassical pragmatists [ edit edit source ] Neoclassical pragmatists stay closer to the project of the classical pragmatists than neopragmatists do.

Sidney Hook : a prominent New York intellectual and philosopher, a student of Dewey at Columbia. Isaac Levi : seeks to apply pragmatist thinking in a decision-theoretic perspective.

Susan Haack : teaches at the University of Miami, sometimes called the intellectual granddaughter of C. Peirce, known chiefly for foundherentism. Larry Hickman : philosopher of technology and important Dewey scholar as head of the Center for Dewey Studies.

David Hildebrand : like other scholars of the classical pragmatists, Hildebrandt is dissatisfied with neopragmatism and argues for the continued importance of the writings of John Dewey.

Nicholas Rescher. Analytical, neo- and other pragmatists [ edit edit source ] Often labelled neopragmatism as well.

Willard van Orman Quine : pragmatist philosopher, concerned with language , logic , and philosophy of mathematics. Clarence Irving Lewis Richard Rorty - : famous author of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.

Hilary Putnam : in many ways the opposite of Rorty and thinks classical pragmatism was too permissive a theory. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Winter ed.

In Russell, Bertrand ed. Why I am not a Christian, and other essays on religion and related subjects.

New York: Simon and Schuster. Morris Dickstein, Duke University Press, Baldwin, James Mark ed. Dewey, John — , Lectures on Ethics — , Donald F. Koch ed.

Dewey, John , How We Think , D. Heath , Lexington, MA, Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, Dewey, John , The Quest for Certainty: A Study of the Relation of Knowledge and Action , Minton, Balch, and Company, New York, NY.

Reprinted, pp. Dewey, John , Theory of the Moral Life , Part 2 of John Dewey and James H. Tufts , Ethics , Henry Holt and Company, New York, NY, Reprinted, Arnold Isenberg ed.

Dewey, John , Logic: The Theory of Inquiry , Henry Holt and Company, New York, NY, James, William , " Pragmatic and Pragmatism ", 1 paragraph, vol.

Baldwin ed. Reprinted, CP 5. Peirce, Collected Papers. James, William , Pragmatism, A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking, Popular Lectures on Philosophy , Longmans, Green, and Company, New York, NY.

James, William , The Meaning of Truth, A Sequel to 'Pragmatism , Longmans, Green, and Company, New York, NY. Peirce, C.

Burks ed. Cited as CP vol. Putnam, Hilary , Words and Life , James Conant ed. Quine, W. Quine, From a Logical Point of View , Ramsey, F.

Ramsey, Philosophical Papers , David Hugh Mellor ed. Rescher, N. This further reading section may contain inappropriate or excessive suggestions that may not follow Wikipedia's guidelines.

Please ensure that only a reasonable number of balanced , topical , reliable , and notable further reading suggestions are given; removing less relevant or redundant publications with the same point of view where appropriate.

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Classical pragmatists — [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Charles Sanders Peirce. William James. John Dewey. George Herbert Mead.

Josiah Royce. George Santayana. Edited by Kenneth Laine Ketner and James Edward Cook, online. Peirce , 4 volumes in 5, included many previously unpublished Peirce manuscripts on mathematical subjects, along with Peirce's important published mathematical articles.

Edited by Carolyn Eisele, back in print. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby 2nd edition , included Peirce's entire correspondence — with Victoria, Lady Welby.

Peirce's other published correspondence is largely limited to the 14 letters included in volume 8 of the Collected Papers , and the odd pre items included so far in the Writings.

Edited by Charles S. Hardwick with James Cook, out of print. The limited coverage, and defective editing and organization, of the Collected Papers led Max Fisch and others in the s to found the Peirce Edition Project PEP , whose mission is to prepare a more complete critical chronological edition.

Only seven volumes have appeared to date, but they cover the period from to , when Peirce carried out much of his best-known work.

Writings of Charles S. Peirce , 8 was published in November ; and work continues on Writings of Charles S. Peirce , 7, 9, and In print and online.

Auspitz has said, [81] "The extent of Peirce's immersion in the science of his day is evident in his reviews in the Nation [ Edited by Kenneth Laine Ketner, with commentary by Hilary Putnam , in print.

Edited 1 by Nathan Hauser and Christian Kloesel and 2 by Peirce Edition Project editors, in print. Edited by Patricia Ann Turisi, in print.

Edited by Matthew E. Moore, in print. Peirce's most important work in pure mathematics was in logical and foundational areas.

He also worked on linear algebra , matrices , various geometries, topology and Listing numbers , Bell numbers , graphs , the four-color problem , and the nature of continuity.

He worked on applied mathematics in economics, engineering, and map projections such as the Peirce quincuncial projection , and was especially active in probability and statistics.

Peirce made a number of striking discoveries in formal logic and foundational mathematics, nearly all of which came to be appreciated only long after he died:.

In [83] he suggested a cardinal arithmetic for infinite numbers, years before any work by Georg Cantor who completed his dissertation in and without access to Bernard Bolzano 's posthumous Paradoxien des Unendlichen.

In — [84] he showed how Boolean algebra could be done via a repeated sufficient single binary operation logical NOR , anticipating Henry M.

See also De Morgan's Laws. In [85] he set out the axiomatization of natural number arithmetic , a few years before Richard Dedekind and Giuseppe Peano.

In the same paper Peirce gave, years before Dedekind, the first purely cardinal definition of a finite set in the sense now known as " Dedekind-finite ", and implied by the same stroke an important formal definition of an infinite set Dedekind-infinite , as a set that can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with one of its proper subsets.

In [86] he distinguished between first-order and second-order quantification. In , he saw that Boolean calculations could be carried out via electrical switches, [12] anticipating Claude Shannon by more than 50 years.

By the later s [90] he was devising existential graphs , a diagrammatic notation for the predicate calculus. Based on them are John F. Sowa 's conceptual graphs and Sun-Joo Shin's diagrammatic reasoning.

Peirce wrote drafts for an introductory textbook, with the working title The New Elements of Mathematics , that presented mathematics from an original standpoint.

Those drafts and many other of his previously unpublished mathematical manuscripts finally appeared [82] in The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S.

Peirce , edited by mathematician Carolyn Eisele. Peirce agreed with Auguste Comte in regarding mathematics as more basic than philosophy and the special sciences of nature and mind.

Peirce classified mathematics into three subareas: 1 mathematics of logic, 2 discrete series, and 3 pseudo-continua as he called them, including the real numbers and continua.

Influenced by his father Benjamin , Peirce argued that mathematics studies purely hypothetical objects and is not just the science of quantity but is more broadly the science which draws necessary conclusions; that mathematics aids logic, not vice versa; and that logic itself is part of philosophy and is the science about drawing conclusions necessary and otherwise.

Beginning with his first paper on the "Logic of Relatives" , Peirce extended the theory of relations that Augustus De Morgan had just recently awakened from its Cinderella slumbers.

Much of the mathematics of relations now taken for granted was "borrowed" from Peirce, not always with all due credit; on that and on how the young Bertrand Russell , especially his Principles of Mathematics and Principia Mathematica , did not do Peirce justice, see Anellis Lewis wrote, "The contributions of C.

Peirce to symbolic logic are more numerous and varied than those of any other writer—at least in the nineteenth century.

Relational logic gained applications. In mathematics, it influenced the abstract analysis of E. Moore and the lattice theory of Garrett Birkhoff. In computer science, the relational model for databases was developed with Peircean ideas in work of Edgar F.

Codd , who was a doctoral student [93] of Arthur W. Burks , a Peirce scholar. In economics, relational logic was used by Frank P.

Ramsey , John von Neumann , and Paul Samuelson to study preferences and utility and by Kenneth J. Arrow in Social Choice and Individual Values , following Arrow's association with Tarski at City College of New York.

On Peirce and his contemporaries Ernst Schröder and Gottlob Frege , Hilary Putnam [87] documented that Frege's work on the logic of quantifiers had little influence on his contemporaries, although it was published four years before the work of Peirce and his student Oscar Howard Mitchell.

Putnam found that mathematicians and logicians learned about the logic of quantifiers through the independent work of Peirce and Mitchell, particularly through Peirce's "On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation" [86] , published in the premier American mathematical journal of the day, and cited by Peano and Schröder, among others, who ignored Frege.

They also adopted and modified Peirce's notations, typographical variants of those now used. Peirce apparently was ignorant of Frege's work, despite their overlapping achievements in logic, philosophy of language , and the foundations of mathematics.

Peirce's work on formal logic had admirers besides Ernst Schröder :. A philosophy of logic, grounded in his categories and semiotic, can be extracted from Peirce's writings and, along with Peirce's logical work more generally, is exposited and defended in Hilary Putnam ; [87] the Introduction in Nathan Houser et al.

Continuity and synechism are central in Peirce's philosophy: "I did not at first suppose that it was, as I gradually came to find it, the master-Key of philosophy".

From a mathematical point of view, he embraced infinitesimals and worked long on the mathematics of continua. He long held that the real numbers constitute a pseudo-continuum; [98] that a true continuum is the real subject matter of analysis situs topology ; and that a true continuum of instants exceeds—and within any lapse of time has room for—any Aleph number any infinite multitude as he called it of instants.

In Peirce wrote that he found that a true continuum might have or lack such room. From now on, there are different kinds of continua, which have different properties.

Peirce held that science achieves statistical probabilities, not certainties, and that spontaneity absolute chance is real see Tychism on his view. Most of his statistical writings promote the frequency interpretation of probability objective ratios of cases , and many of his writings express skepticism about and criticize the use of probability when such models are not based on objective randomization.

Peirce was one of the founders of statistics. He formulated modern statistics in " Illustrations of the Logic of Science " — and " A Theory of Probable Inference " With a repeated measures design , Charles Sanders Peirce and Joseph Jastrow introduced blinded , controlled randomized experiments in [] Hacking [1] before Ronald A.

He used correlation and smoothing. Peirce extended the work on outliers by Benjamin Peirce , his father. See Stephen Stigler 's historical books and Ian Hacking It is not sufficiently recognized that Peirce's career was that of a scientist, not a philosopher; and that during his lifetime he was known and valued chiefly as a scientist, only secondarily as a logician, and scarcely at all as a philosopher.

Even his work in philosophy and logic will not be understood until this fact becomes a standing premise of Peircean studies. Peirce was a working scientist for 30 years, and arguably was a professional philosopher only during the five years he lectured at Johns Hopkins.

He learned philosophy mainly by reading, each day, a few pages of Immanuel Kant 's Critique of Pure Reason , in the original German, while a Harvard undergraduate.

His writings bear on a wide array of disciplines, including mathematics , logic , philosophy, statistics, astronomy , [27] metrology , [3] geodesy , experimental psychology , [4] economics, [5] linguistics , [6] and the history and philosophy of science.

This work has enjoyed renewed interest and approval, a revival inspired not only by his anticipations of recent scientific developments but also by his demonstration of how philosophy can be applied effectively to human problems.

Peirce's philosophy includes see below in related sections a pervasive three-category system: belief that truth is immutable and is both independent from actual opinion fallibilism and discoverable no radical skepticism , logic as formal semiotic on signs, on arguments, and on inquiry's ways—including philosophical pragmatism which he founded , critical common-sensism , and scientific method —and, in metaphysics: Scholastic realism , e.

John Duns Scotus , belief in God, freedom, and at least an attenuated immortality, objective idealism , and belief in the reality of continuity and of absolute chance, mechanical necessity, and creative love.

In his work, fallibilism and pragmatism may seem to work somewhat like skepticism and positivism , respectively, in others' work. However, for Peirce, fallibilism is balanced by an anti-skepticism and is a basis for belief in the reality of absolute chance and of continuity, [] and pragmatism commits one to anti- nominalist belief in the reality of the general CP 5.

For Peirce, First Philosophy, which he also called cenoscopy, is less basic than mathematics and more basic than the special sciences of nature and mind.

It studies positive phenomena in general, phenomena available to any person at any waking moment, and does not settle questions by resorting to special experiences.

On May 14, , the year-old Peirce presented a paper entitled "On a New List of Categories" to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , which published it the following year.

The paper outlined a theory of predication, involving three universal categories that Peirce developed in response to reading Aristotle , Immanuel Kant , and G.

Hegel , categories that Peirce applied throughout his work for the rest of his life. In the categories one will discern, concentrated, the pattern that one finds formed by the three grades of clearness in " How To Make Our Ideas Clear " paper foundational to pragmatism , and in numerous other trichotomies in his work.

The following table is compiled from that and later works. Peirce did not write extensively in aesthetics and ethics, [] but came by to hold that aesthetics, ethics, and logic, in that order, comprise the normative sciences.

Peirce regarded logic per se as a division of philosophy, as a normative science based on esthetics and ethics, as more basic than metaphysics, [] and as "the art of devising methods of research".

He was productive in both philosophical logic and logic's mathematics, which were connected deeply in his work and thought. Peirce argued that logic is formal semiotic , the formal study of signs in the broadest sense, not only signs that are artificial, linguistic, or symbolic, but also signs that are semblances or are indexical such as reactions.

Peirce held that "all this universe is perfused with signs, if it is not composed exclusively of signs", [] along with their representational and inferential relations.

He argued that, since all thought takes time, all thought is in signs [] and sign processes "semiosis" such as the inquiry process. He divided logic into: 1 speculative grammar, or stechiology, on how signs can be meaningful and, in relation to that, what kinds of signs there are, how they combine, and how some embody or incorporate others; 2 logical critic, or logic proper, on the modes of inference; and 3 speculative or universal rhetoric , or methodeutic, [] the philosophical theory of inquiry, including pragmatism.

In his "F. Peirce proceeds to a critical theme in research practices and the shaping of theories:. Peirce adds, that method and economy are best in research but no outright sin inheres in trying any theory in the sense that the investigation via its trial adoption can proceed unimpeded and undiscouraged, and that "the one unpardonable offence" is a philosophical barricade against truth's advance, an offense to which "metaphysicians in all ages have shown themselves the most addicted".

Peirce in many writings holds that logic precedes metaphysics ontological, religious, and physical. Peirce goes on to list four common barriers to inquiry: 1 Assertion of absolute certainty; 2 maintaining that something is absolutely unknowable; 3 maintaining that something is absolutely inexplicable because absolutely basic or ultimate; 4 holding that perfect exactitude is possible, especially such as to quite preclude unusual and anomalous phenomena.

To refuse absolute theoretical certainty is the heart of fallibilism , which Peirce unfolds into refusals to set up any of the listed barriers.

Peirce elsewhere argues that logic's presupposition of fallibilism leads at length to the view that chance and continuity are very real tychism and synechism.

The First Rule of Logic pertains to the mind's presuppositions in undertaking reason and logic; presuppositions, for instance, that truth and the real do not depend on yours or my opinion of them but do depend on representational relation and consist in the destined end in investigation taken far enough see below.

He describes such ideas as, collectively, hopes which, in particular cases, one is unable seriously to doubt.

In three articles in —, [] [] [] Peirce rejected mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt and first or ultimate principles, and argued that we have as he numbered them [] :.

The above sense of the term "intuition" is almost Kant's, said Peirce. It differs from the current looser sense that encompasses instinctive or anyway half-conscious inference.

Peirce argued that those incapacities imply the reality of the general and of the continuous, the validity of the modes of reasoning, [] and the falsity of philosophical Cartesianism see below.

Peirce rejected the conception usually ascribed to Kant of the unknowable thing-in-itself [] and later said that to "dismiss make-believes" is a prerequisite for pragmatism.

Peirce sought, through his wide-ranging studies through the decades, formal philosophical ways to articulate thought's processes, and also to explain the workings of science.

These inextricably entangled questions of a dynamics of inquiry rooted in nature and nurture led him to develop his semiotic with very broadened conceptions of signs and inference, and, as its culmination, a theory of inquiry for the task of saying 'how science works' and devising research methods.

This would be logic by the medieval definition taught for centuries: art of arts, science of sciences, having the way to the principles of all methods.

Peirce began writing on semiotic in the s, around the time when he devised his system of three categories.

He called it both semiotic and semeiotic. Both are current in singular and plural. He based it on the conception of a triadic sign relation , and defined semiosis as "action, or influence, which is, or involves, a cooperation of three subjects, such as a sign, its object, and its interpretant, this tri-relative influence not being in any way resolvable into actions between pairs".

Peirce held that all thought is in signs, issuing in and from interpretation, where sign is the word for the broadest variety of conceivable semblances, diagrams, metaphors, symptoms, signals, designations, symbols, texts, even mental concepts and ideas, all as determinations of a mind or quasi-mind , that which at least functions like a mind, as in the work of crystals or bees [] —the focus is on sign action in general rather than on psychology, linguistics, or social studies fields which he also pursued.

Inquiry is a kind of inference process, a manner of thinking and semiosis. Global divisions of ways for phenomena to stand as signs, and the subsumption of inquiry and thinking within inference as a sign process, enable the study of inquiry on semiotics' three levels:.

Peirce uses examples often from common experience, but defines and discusses such things as assertion and interpretation in terms of philosophical logic.

In a formal vein, Peirce said:. On the Definition of Logic. Logic is formal semiotic. A sign is something, A , which brings something, B , its interpretant sign, determined or created by it, into the same sort of correspondence or a lower implied sort with something, C , its object , as that in which itself stands to C.

This definition no more involves any reference to human thought than does the definition of a line as the place within which a particle lies during a lapse of time.

It is from this definition that I deduce the principles of logic by mathematical reasoning, and by mathematical reasoning that, I aver, will support criticism of Weierstrassian severity, and that is perfectly evident.

The word "formal" in the definition is also defined. Peirce's theory of signs is known to be one of the most complex semiotic theories due to its generalistic claim.

Anything is a sign—not absolutely as itself, but instead in some relation or other. The sign relation is the key. It defines three roles encompassing 1 the sign, 2 the sign's subject matter, called its object , and 3 the sign's meaning or ramification as formed into a kind of effect called its interpretant a further sign, for example a translation.

It is an irreducible triadic relation , according to Peirce. The roles are distinct even when the things that fill those roles are not. The roles are but three; a sign of an object leads to one or more interpretants, and, as signs, they lead to further interpretants.

Two traditional approaches to sign relation, necessary though insufficient, are the way of extension a sign's objects, also called breadth, denotation, or application and the way of intension the objects' characteristics, qualities, attributes referenced by the sign, also called depth, comprehension , significance, or connotation.

Peirce adds a third, the way of information , including change of information, to integrate the other two approaches into a unified whole. A sign depends on its object in such a way as to represent its object—the object enables and, in a sense, determines the sign.

A physically causal sense of this stands out when a sign consists in an indicative reaction. The interpretant depends likewise on both the sign and the object—an object determines a sign to determine an interpretant.

But this determination is not a succession of dyadic events, like a row of toppling dominoes; sign determination is triadic. For example, an interpretant does not merely represent something which represented an object; instead an interpretant represents something as a sign representing the object.

The object be it a quality or fact or law or even fictional determines the sign to an interpretant through one's collateral experience [] with the object, in which the object is found or from which it is recalled, as when a sign consists in a chance semblance of an absent object.

Peirce used the word "determine" not in a strictly deterministic sense, but in a sense of "specializes", bestimmt , [] involving variable amount, like an influence.

The process is logically structured to perpetuate itself, and is definitive of sign, object, and interpretant in general. Some of the understanding needed by the mind depends on familiarity with the object.

To know what a given sign denotes, the mind needs some experience of that sign's object, experience outside of, and collateral to, that sign or sign system.

In that context Peirce speaks of collateral experience, collateral observation, collateral acquaintance, all in much the same terms. Among Peirce's many sign typologies, three stand out, interlocked.

Pragmatism Wiki

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