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Many religions also use similar concepts but different terminology to venerate persons worthy of some honor. Coleman, SJ , of the Graduate Theological Union , Berkeley, California , wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances : .
These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields". They exert "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well".
According to the Catholic Church , a "saint" is anyone in heaven , whether recognized on Earth or not, who form the "great cloud of witnesses" Hebrews There are many persons that the Church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally canonized and who are otherwise titled "saints" because of the fame of their holiness.
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church Chapter 2, Article 1, 61, "The patriarchs, prophets, and certain other Old Testament figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the church's liturgical traditions.
In his book Saint of the Day , editor Leonard Foley, OFM , says this: the "[Saints'] surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration.
They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ.
The Catholic Church teaches that it does not "make" or "create" saints, but rather recognizes them. Proofs of heroic virtue required in the process of beatification will serve to illustrate in detail the general principles exposed above  upon proof of their "holiness" or likeness to God.
On 3 January , Pope John XV became the first pope to proclaim a person a "saint" from outside the diocese of Rome: on the petition of the German ruler, he had canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg.
Before that time, the popular "cults", or venerations, of saints had been local and spontaneous and were confirmed by the local bishop.
One source claims that "there are over 10, named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources , but no definitive head count".
Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints in , including a total of 1, saints. The latest revision of this book, edited by Herbert Thurston and Donald Attwater , contains the lives of 2, saints.
The veneration of saints, in Latin cultus , or the "cult of the Saints", describes a particular popular devotion or entrustment of one's self to a particular saint or group of saints.
Although the term " worship " is sometimes used, it is only used with the older English connotation of honoring or respecting dulia a person.
According to the Church, Divine worship is in the strict sense reserved only to God latria and never to the saints. A saint may be designated as a patron saint of a particular cause, profession, or locale, or invoked as a protector against specific illnesses or disasters, sometimes by popular custom and sometimes by official declarations of the Church.
Relics of saints are respected, or "venerated", similar to the veneration of holy images and icons. The practice in past centuries of venerating relics of saints with the intention of obtaining healing from God through their intercession is taken from the early Church.
The deacon, Jack Sullivan, asserted that after addressing Newman he was cured of spinal stenosis in a matter of hours. In , a panel of theologians concluded that Sullivan's recovery was the result of his prayer to Newman.
According to the Church, to be deemed a miracle, "a medical recovery must be instantaneous, not attributable to treatment, disappear for good.
Once a person has been canonized, the deceased body of the saint is considered holy as a relic. Saints' personal belongings may also be used as relics.
This symbol is found, for instance, in the Canadian heraldry of the office responsible for the St. Lawrence Seaway. Formal canonization is a lengthy process, often of many years or even centuries.
After this, the official report on the candidate is submitted to the bishop of the pertinent diocese and more study is undertaken.
The information is then sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints of the Holy See for evaluation at the universal level of the Church.
Next, and at a minimum, proof of two important miracles obtained from God through the intercession of the candidate are required for formal canonization as a saint.
These miracles must be posthumous. In the Eastern Orthodox Church a saint is defined as anyone who is in heaven , whether recognized here on earth, or not.
Sainthood in the Orthodox Church does not necessarily reflect a moral model, but the communion with God: there are countless examples of people who lived in great sin and became saints by humility and repentance, such as Mary of Egypt , Moses the Ethiopian , and Dysmas , the repentant thief who was crucified.
Therefore, a more complete Eastern Orthodox definition of what a saint is, has to do with the way that saints, through their humility and their love of humankind, saved inside them the entire Church, and loved all people.
Orthodox belief considers that God reveals saints through answered prayers and other miracles. Saints are usually recognized by a local community, often by people who directly knew them.
As their popularity grows they are often then recognized by the entire church. The word "canonization" means that a Christian has been found worthy to have his name placed in the canon official list of saints of the Church.
The formal process of recognition involves deliberation by a synod of bishops. If the ecclesiastical review is successful, this is followed by a service of Glorification in which the Saint is given a day on the church calendar to be celebrated by the entire church.
As a general rule only clergy will touch relics in order to move them or carry them in procession, however, in veneration the faithful will kiss the relic to show love and respect toward the saint.
The altar in an Orthodox church usually contains relics of saints,  often of martyrs. Church interiors are covered with the Icons of saints.
When an Orthodox Christian venerates icons of a saint he is venerating the image of God which he sees in the saint. Because the Church shows no true distinction between the living and the dead the saints are considered to be alive in Heaven , saints are referred to as if they were still alive.
Saints are venerated but not worshiped. They are believed to be able to intercede for salvation and help mankind either through direct communion with God or by personal intervention.
This is a title attributed to saints who had lived a monastic or eremitic life, and it is equal to the more usual title of "Saint". The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, for example, has the requirement that at least 50 years must pass following a prospective saint's death before the Coptic Orthodox Church's pope can canonize the saint.
In the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement, the title of Saint refers to a person who has been elevated by popular opinion as a pious and holy person.
The saints are seen as models of holiness to be imitated, and as a 'cloud of witnesses' that strengthen and encourage the believer during his or her spiritual journey Hebrews The saints are seen as elder brothers and sisters in Christ.
Official Anglican creeds recognise the existence of the saints in heaven. In high-church contexts, such as Anglo-Catholicism , a saint is generally one to whom has been attributed and who has generally demonstrated a high level of holiness and sanctity.
In this use, a saint is therefore not merely a believer , but one who has been transformed by virtue. In Catholicism , a saint is a special sign of God's activity.
The veneration of saints is sometimes misunderstood to be worship, in which case it is derisively termed "hagiolatry". So far as invocation of the saints is concerned,  one of the Church of England 's Articles of Religion "Of Purgatory " condemns "the Romish Doctrine concerning Anglo-Catholics in Anglican provinces using the Articles often make a distinction between a "Romish" and a "Patristic" doctrine concerning the invocation of saints, permitting the latter in accordance with Article XXII.
Indeed, the theologian E. Bicknell stated that the Anglican view acknowledges that the term "invocation may mean either of two things: the simple request to a saint for his prayers intercession , 'ora pro nobis,' or a request for some particular benefit.
In medieval times the saints had come to be regarded as themselves the authors of blessings. Such a view was condemned but the former was affirmed.
Some Anglicans and Anglican churches, particularly Anglo-Catholics, personally ask prayers of the saints. However, such a practice is seldom found in any official Anglican liturgy.
Anglicans believe that the only effective Mediator between the believer and God the Father, in terms of redemption and salvation, is God the Son, Jesus Christ.
Historical Anglicanism has drawn a distinction between the intercession of the saints and the invocation of the saints.
The former was generally accepted in Anglican doctrine, while the latter was generally rejected. Those who beseech the saints to intercede on their behalf make a distinction between "mediator" and "intercessor", and claim that asking for the prayers of the saints is no different in kind than asking for the prayers of living Christians.
Anglican Catholics understand sainthood in a more Catholic or Orthodox way, often praying for intercessions from the saints and celebrating their feast days.
According to the Church of England , a saint is one who is sanctified, as it translates in the Authorised King James Version 2 Chronicles In the Lutheran Church , all Christians, whether in heaven or on earth, are regarded as saints.
However, the church still recognizes and honors specific saints, including some of those recognized by the Catholic Church, but in a qualified way: according to the Augsburg Confession ,  the term "saint" is used in the manner of the Catholic Church only insofar as to denote a person who received exceptional grace, was sustained by faith, and whose good works are to be an example to any Christian.
Traditional Lutheran belief accounts that prayers to the saints are prohibited, as they are not mediators of redemption.
The Lutheran Churches also have liturgical calendars in which they honor individuals as saints. This criticism was rebutted by the Catholic side in the Confutatio Augustana ,  which in turn was rebutted by the Lutheran side in the Apology to the Augsburg Confession.
While Methodists as a whole do not venerate saints, they do honor and admire them. Methodists believe that all Christians are saints , but mainly use the term to refer to biblical figures, Christian leaders, and martyrs of the faith.
Methodist congregations observe All Saints' Day. The Romish doctrine concerning purgatory, pardon, worshiping, and adoration, as well of images as of relics, and also invocation of saints, is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no warrant of Scripture, but repugnant to the Word of God.
In many Protestant churches, the word "saint" is used more generally to refer to anyone who is a Christian. This is similar in usage to Paul 's numerous references in the New Testament of the Bible.
Many Protestants consider intercessory prayers to the saints to be idolatry , since an application of divine worship that should be given only to God himself is being given to other believers, dead or alive.
Within some Protestant traditions, "saint" is also used to refer to any born-again Christian. Many emphasize the traditional New Testament meaning of the word, preferring to write "saint" to refer to any believer, in continuity with the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers.
In the New Testament, saints are all those who have entered into the Christian covenant of baptism. The qualification "latter-day" refers to the doctrine that members are living in the "latter days", before the Second Coming of Christ , and is used to distinguish the members of the church, which considers itself the restoration of the ancient Christian church.
The use of the term "saint" is not exclusive to Christianity. In many religions, there are people who have been recognized within their tradition as having fulfilled the highest aspirations of religious teaching.
In English, the term saint is often used to translate this idea from many world religions. The Jewish hasid or tsaddiq , the Islamic qidees , the Zoroastrian fravashi , the Hindu rsi or guru, the Buddhist arahant or bodhisattva, the Daoist shengren, the Shinto kami, and others have all been referred to as saints.
They are worshiped in churches where they appear as saints and in religious festivals, where they appear as the deities. Buddhists in both the Theravada and Mahayana traditions hold the Arhats in special esteem, as well as highly developed Bodhisattvas.
Tibetan Buddhists hold the tulkus reincarnates of deceased eminent practitioners as living saints on earth. Hindu saints are those recognized by Hindus as showing a great degree of holiness and sanctity.
Hinduism has a long tradition of stories and poetry about saints. There is no formal canonization process in Hinduism, but over time, many men and women have reached the status of saints among their followers and among Hindus in general.
Unlike in Christianity, Hinduism does not canonize people as saints after death, but they can be accepted as saints during their lifetime. Some Hindu saints are given god-like status, being seen as incarnations of Vishnu , Shiva , Devi , and other aspects of the Divine—this can happen during their lifetimes, or sometimes many years after their deaths.
This explains another common name for Hindu saints: godmen. Islam has had a rich history of veneration of saints often called wali , which literally means "Friend [of God]" ,  which has declined in some parts of the Islamic world in the twentieth century due to the influence of the various streams of Salafism.
In Sunni Islam , the veneration of saints became a very common form of devotion early on,  and saints came to be defined in the eighth-century as a group of "special people chosen by God and endowed with exceptional gifts, such as the ability to work miracles.
The Quran has pointed to it in different places, and the sayings of the Prophet have mentioned it, and whoever denies the miraculous power of saints are innovators or following innovators.
Veneration of saints eventually became one of the most widespread Sunni practices for more than a millennium, before it was opposed in the twentieth century by the Salafi movement , whose various streams regard it as "being both un-Islamic and backwards Deutsch-Englisch-Übersetzung für: saint.
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